Glossaire de la terminologie mycologique (champignons)

De la descente en rappel à la zoologie, chaque sujet spécialisé a son propre jargon, un langage abrégé clair pour les personnes impliquées et opaque pour les «étrangers» (à moins qu'ils n'aient une clé pour débloquer les significations cachées). La mycologie ne fait pas exception et ce glossaire de termes et de terminologie mycologiques n'est qu'une version résumée d'une source plus complète fournie dans le dernier livre de Pat O'Reilly, «Fascined by Fungi» . Pour plus de détails et des exemples de pages, consultez notre librairie, où vous pouvez commander un exemplaire signé par l'auteur en ligne ...

Au fur et à mesure que vous vous impliquez davantage avec les champignons, et en particulier lorsque vous parlez avec d'autres passionnés ou que vous lisez sur le sujet, le jargon des termes et des phrases deviendra votre propre raccourci. En attendant, voici un glossaire pour vous aider avec les termes fréquemment utilisés par les mycologues.

Comparez la largeur des deux colonnes du tableau et vous verrez pourquoi les experts parlent de cette façon: ces termes économisent beaucoup de temps et de papier (et donc beaucoup d'arbres, et de champignons aussi!).

Terme

Sens

âcre

au goût poivré et brûlant

aigu

(se référant à la forme physique) pointu

adnate

(branchies) attachées à la tige sur la totalité ou la majeure partie de leur profondeur totale

annexé

(branchies) se rétrécissant en profondeur vers la tige afin que l'attache soit étroite

amyloïde

virant au bleu, au gris ou au noir lorsqu'il est coloré avec le réactif Meltzer

annulus

anneau de tissu sur une tige de champignon laissé par un voile partiel déchiré

apiculus

petite projection sur une spore où elle est attachée au stérigme

apothécie

fruits en forme de coupe de certains champignons ascomycètes

appendiculer

(décrivant une marge de capuchon) frangé de fragments de voile

appréhendé

(souvent utilisé pour décrire les écailles) aplati sur une surface

arbusculaire

mycorhize (AM)

(une mycorhize) où des champignons du Glomeromycota pénètrent dans les racines d'une plante (généralement herbacée) et fournissent à la plante de l'eau et des nutriments tandis que la plante fournit des sucres au champignon

Ascendant

(décrivant un anneau) évasé vers le haut et vers l'extérieur

ascocarpe

corps fruitier d'un champignon ascomycète

ascomycètes

a - Classe de champignons qui produisent leurs spores dans des cellules en forme de sac appelées asques

ascospores

spores sexuelles produites dans les asques de champignons ascomycètes

asque

(pl., asci) la cellule productrice de spores d'un corps fruitier ascomycète

autodigestion

auto-digérant ou liquéfiant - une caractéristique des champignons de l'encre

basidiocarpe

corps fruitier d'un champignon basidiomycète

basidiomycètes

a - Classe de champignons produisant leurs spores sur les basides

basidiocarpe

corps fruitier d'un champignon basidiomycète

basidiospores

spores sexuelles produites sur les basides des champignons basidiomycètes

basidium

(pl., basides) cellule productrice de spores d'un champignon basidiomycète

biotrophe

se nourrissant de cellules vivantes d'autres organismes

bulbeux

(décrivant une tige) avec une base enflée

caespiteux

entassés dans une touffe ou une grappe mais non attachés les uns aux autres

campanuler

(décrivant une casquette) en forme de cloche

casquette

partie supérieure d'un champignon basidiomycète qui porte le tissu fertile

carpophore

corpuscule fongique comprenant la tige, le chapeau et les branchies

caulocystidium

un cystidium sur la tige d'un champignon

cellulose

component of plant cell walls and of wood composed of glucose units

cheilocystidium

a cystidium on the edge of a mushroom gill

chlamydospores

asexual spores formed by the breaking up of fungal hyphae

cinereous

ash grey in colour

clamp connection

swollen area formed around septum in a hypha during cell division

clavate

(usually describing a mushroom stem) club-shaped

concolorous

(when comparing parts of a fruitbody) being of the same colour

context

the flesh of a fungal fruitbody

convex

(describing a cap) domed without either a hump or a depression

coprophilous

growing on dung

coriaceous

leathery

cortina

a cobweb-like partial veil consisting of fine silky fibres

crustose

(describing a lichen) forming a crust on a substrate (tree, rock etc)

cuticle

the surface layer of the cap or stem of a fruitbody

cystidium

special sterile cell among the basidia on some fungi

decurrent

(describing gills) running down the stem - as with Chanterelles

depressed

(describing a cap) where the central region is lower than the margin

descending

(describing a ring) flaring downwards and out, like a skirt

deuteromycetes

obsolete term for a group fungi not known to reproduce sexually

(Molecular analysis can now determine their appropriate groups)

dextrinoid

staining brick red or brown with Meltzer’s reagent

dichotomous

forking/divided into pairs – as in logical decision-making trees

dikaryon

a pair of closely associated, sexually compatible nuclei

distant

(describing gills) widely spaced

eccentric

(describing stem attachment to cap) offset to one side.

ectomycorrhiza

(EM)

(a mycorrhiza) where the fungus forms sheathes around plant rootlets (often of a tree), growing between but not penetrating the cells of the plant root, and providing the plant with water and nutrients while the plant supplies sugars to the fungus

emarginate

(describing gills) conspicuously notched near to the stem

endomycorrhiza

mycorrhiza in which fungal hyphae penetrate cell walls of host plant

endophyte

fungus living within a plant without causing visible symptoms of harm

floccose

with a covering of loose cotton-like scales

foetid

with a strong and offensive odour

foliose

(describing a lichen) shaped like a leaf

free

(describing gills) not attached to the stem

fruticose

(describing a lichen) shaped like a shrub

furfuraceous

(describing a surface) covered in particles that look like grains of sand

fusiform

(describing a stem) spindle-shaped, tapering at top and bottom

germ pore

thin region of spore wall via which spores can germinate

gills

plates of tissue bearing the hymenium in an agaricoid fungus

glabrous

(describing a surface) bald

gleba

spore-bearing tissue enclosed within fruitbodies of gasteromycetes

glutinous

(describing a cap surface) covered with a slimy gelatinous layer

granulose

(describing a cap or stem surface) covered with small granules

guttule

a small oil-like drop visible (via a microscope) inside a fungal spore

hemicellulose

amorphous (non-crystalline) polysaccharides in plant cell walls

hirsute

hairy

hispid

covered with stiff bristle-like hairs

homogeneous

being the same throughout

hyaline

clear (colourless) when viewed under a microscope

hygrophanous

appearing translucent when wet, paler and more opaque when dry

hymenium

fertile spore-bearing tissue (e.g. on mushroom gill or pore surfaces)

hypha

(pl., hyphae) filamentous thread of fungal mycelium

inferior

(describing a ring) located near the base of the stem

infundibuliform

funnel-shaped

involute

(describing a cap) rolled inwards at the margin

lamellae

gills

latex

milky fluid that oozes from cut surfaces of Lactarius species

lichen

organism comprising a fungus and an alga or a cyanobacterium

lignicolous

growing on wood

mucilaginous

(often describing a mushroom cap) covered with slime

mycelium

body of a fungus, most of which is underground or hidden within wood

mycobiont

the fungal component of a lichen or of a mycorrhizal partnership

mycology

the study of fungi

mycophagy

the eating of fungi

mycophile

a person who loves fungi

mycophobe

a person who fears or loathes fungi

mycorrhiza

structure by which a fungus and a plant exchange nutrients mutually

myxomycetes

a large and commonly encountered group within the slime moulds

necrotrophic

feeding by killing and consuming (part of) another organism

nonamyloid

not turning blue, grey or black when stained with Meltzer’s reagent

organelle

a differentiated (separate) structure within a cell

parasitism

process whereby an organism feeds at the expense of another (host)

partial veil

protective membrane covering gills during development of a fruitbody

peridioles

egg-like spore capsules in bird’s-nest fungi (Nidulariaceae)

peridium

outer wall of a fungus, especially a gasteromycete (e.g. a puffball)

perithecium

flask-shaped chambers containing asci within pyrenomycetes fungi

photobiont

photosynthesizing component (alga or cyanobacterium) of a lichen

photosynthesis

process by which plants convert carbon dioxide and water to sugars

pileus

(pl., pilei) the umbrella-shaped cap on the top of a mushroom stem

pleurocystidium

a cystidium on a gill surface

pores

the orifices of the tubes of polypore fungi via which spores emerge

pruinose

covered with a bloom (often pale, like a fine layer of chalk dust)

pseudorhiza

a tap-root-like extension at the base of a mushroom stem

pubescent

(describing a surface) covered with fine short hairs

resupinate

fruitbody that lies flat on the substrate with its hymenium outermost

reticulate

(describing a stem, notably of a bolete) marked with a net-like pattern

rhizomorph

a root-like mycelial strand comprising bunched parallel hyphae

ring

membranous remains of the partial veil attached to a stem

rufous

brownish red

saprophyte

an organism that obtains its nutrients from dead organic material

scabrous

(describing a stem or cap surface) rough with scale-like projections

septate

(describing hyphae) partitioned by cross walls known as septa

septum

(pl., septa) a cross wall separating cells of a hyphal thread

serrate

(describing gill margins) with saw-toothed edges

sessile

without a stalk

sinuate

(describing gills) with a notch near the point of attachment to the stem

slime moulds

a group of fungus-like organisms that use spores to reproduce

sphaerocysts

globose hyphal cells in the Russulaceae and certain other fungi

spore

reproductive structure of a fungus, usually a single cell

sporophore

fungal fruitbody

squamose

(describing the surface of a cap or a stem) covered with scales

squamulose

(describing the surface of a cap or a stem) covered with tiny scales

stellate

star-shaped

sterigma

(pl., sterigmata) prong at top of basidium on which a spore develops

stipe

stem of a mushroom

stipitate

(describing a fruitbody) having a stem

striate

(describing a cap) with fine radiating lines or furrows around margin

subdecurrent

(describing gills) running just a short distance down the stem

subglobose

almost spherical

subtomentose

(describing a surface) somewhat or finely woolly

sulcate

deeply furrowed

superior

(describing a ring) located near the top of the stem

taxonomy

the - Classification of organisms based on their natural relationships

thallus

(pl., thalli) the body of a fungus or a lichen

tomentose

densely woolly, velvety, or thickly covered with soft hairs

trama

the flesh or context of a fungal fruitbody’s cap, gills or stem

truncate

ending abruptly as if chopped off

tubes

spore-bearing cylindrical structures of boletes and polypores

umbilicate

(describing a cap) having a navel-like central depression

umbo

a raised central mound (often conical with a rounded top)

umbonate

(describing a cap) having a raised central mound

universal veil

a protective membrane that initially surrounds an entire fruitbody

Uredinales

rust fungi (an order within the Basidiomycota)

ustilaginomycetes

smut fungi (a - Class within the Basidiomycota)

ventricose

(describing a stem) swollen at or near to the middle

verrucose

(describing spores) covered with small rounded warts

vinaceous

the colour of pale red wine

viscid

slimy or sticky (at least when moist)

volva

remains of the universal veil found at stem base of some fungi

zonate

(usually describing a cap) marked with concentric colour bands

Zygomycota

a - Class of simple fungi whose hyphae generally lack cross walls